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Welcome to the George Garrett Archive Project

The project, set up by Writing on the Wall with the backing of the Heritage Lottery Fund, celebrates and preserves the legacy of the Liverpool born writer, George Garrett (1896-1966)

The Two Georges to be on The One Show!

On Thursday 2nd August I spent a long but enjoyable day with a film crew from The One Show who were filming Richard Blair and Sean Garrett for a short film about when Richard’s father, George Orwell met Sean Garrett’s Grandfather, George Garrett, in February 1936, when Orwell was researching The Road to Wigan Pier.

George Garrett, Merchant Seaman, writer, playwright and founder member of Liverpool’s Unity Theatre, was a radical activist who travelled the world and wrote a series of short stories, stage plays and documentary reports about poverty and struggle in the 1920’s and 30’s.

In 2012, based on two suitcases of artefacts donated by Garrett’s family, Writing on the Wall, an arts based organisation in Liverpool, launched The George Garrett Archive Project to preserve his legacy and share his life and work.

It was fascinating to listen to Richard and Sean discussing the meeting between their father and grandfather, speculating on their view of each other, the impact of their writing, and sharing their memories of them as people.

George Orwell was introduced to Garrett, who showed him round Liverpool, visiting the docker’s hiring stands and the new corporation housing, before Garrett dropped him off at Wigan Pier.

Garrett took Orwell around Liverpool’s housing estates, to the Docker’s stand and then to Wigan. They appear to have got on well together and sat up in the night discussing literature and politics. Garrett was well-travelled and known for being well-read and would no doubt have been able to hold his own in discussions with Orwell.
Orwell confesses to ‘being very impressed by Garrett’, even more so when he realises Garrett is also Matt Low, with more stories published than he previously realised.’
‘I urged him to write his autobiography’ writes Orwell, ‘but, as usual, living in about two rooms on the dole with a wife (who, I gather, objects to his writing) and a number of kids, he finds it impossible to settle to any long work and can only do short stories. Apart from the enormous unemployment in Liverpool it is almost impossible for him to get work because he is blacklisted everywhere as a Communist.’ (Garrett, like many activists had flirted with the Communist party briefly, but was actually a lifelong syndicalist, having joined the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), or The Wobblies, as they were better known, during his time in America in the early 1920s)
The following year, 9 March 1937, Garrett writing to his editor, John Lehmann of the New Writing magazine, says, ‘I see by to-day’s news-chronicle that Orwell’s “Road to Wigan pier” is out. Actually, there is a Wigan Pier. I left Orwell (Eric Blair, now in Spain) there, after showing him around Liverpool. So you can understand that I do recognise my social duties. To-day’s blurb says that “The Road to Wigan Pier” is the most vivid description of the means test yet written. But, this is what I meant by shocking some of the know alls and strutting politicians – THE MEN ON THE PARISH HAVE NEVER BEEN OFF THE MEANS TEST. I am not saying it was my intention to screech that down a reader’s ear, but I was bent on whispering it if you like, just to let him know what these things are – and how.
However, he follows this up on 15 March 1937, saying in a further letter, ‘That “Road to Wigan Pier” is a terrible hotch-potch [sic]. From beginning to end it is one long sneer; this includes the first part. The only decent material is the visit to the mine, and the photographs. I wish I had been given the job of reviewing it. A book of that type can do a lot of damage. That it should appear as a “Left Book” gives it an added danger.’

Garrett’s relationship with George Orwell reflected that of the views of some other working-class writers of the time. Orwell and Garrett met in 1936, before his major works, Homage to Catalonia, Animal Farm and 1984, had made him into a household name and soon to become one of Britain’s literary greats. In 1936, still a young author trying to find his theme and voice, Orwell set out on a commission by publisher’s Gollancz to explore and write about unemployment and poverty in the north of England. For a man like Garrett, who spent ten years out of work directly experiencing the poverty Orwell was researching, Orwell, who was Eton educated, whereas Garrett left school at fourteen and ran away to sea at seventeen, no doubt appeared as something of a dilettante.
Some years later, in a discussion on proletarian literature, with Desmond Hawkins in the December 1940 edition of The Listener, Orwell references, alongside work by jack London, James Hanley and Jack Hilton, George Garrett’s ‘sea stories’, as examples of some of the best writing emerging from working class writers.
In his diaries Orwell wrote that while he was with Garrett he ‘Bought two brass candlesticks and a ship in a bottle. G considered I was swindled but they are quite nice brass.’

In a very touching and fitting end to the day’s filming, Richard Blair produced the very ship in a bottle that Orwell had bought in Liverpool in 1936. Sean was surprised, and probably a little more moved than he would have expected to be. I was too. I was reading Orwell back in school when I was fourteen and have spent five years working on and writing about Garrett, and to hold something bought and kept by Orwell, which I felt showed a familiarity between Garrett and Orwell that they even spent some time shopping together (!), really brought their story to life.
Orwell and Garrett never met again, but, inspired by Orwell’s advice and fired up by his view of The Road to Wigan Pier, Garrett did set out to write his autobiography, Ten Years On The Parish. Sadly, it was never published in his lifetime, but, with Liverpool University Press Writing on the Wall and The George Garrett Archive published it in 2017, along with Garrett’s correspondence with his editor John Lehman – Ten Years On The Parish, The Life and Letters of George Garrett.

The One show feature is expected to be shown some time in late September.
You can find out more about Garrett’s life and work and purchase Ten Years On The Parish at here
Mike Morris, Co-Director, Writing on the Wall.

George Garrett, Merchant Seaman, writer, playwright and founder member of Liverpool’s Unity Theatre, was a radical activist and a ‘militant advocate of tolerance’ who travelled the world and wrote a series of short stories and plays that led George Orwell, who he met and gave guidance and support to in his research for ‘The Road to Wigan Pier’, to say, 'I was very greatly impressed by Garrett. Had I known before that it is he who writes under the pseudonym of Matt Low in the Adelphi (a magazine published in the 1920's and 30's) and one or two other places, I would have taken steps to meet him earlier.

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Ten Years On The Parish: The Autobiography and Letters of George Garrett

‘Garrett was all about truth. He worked hard to discover truth.
He worked harder to express it. And most of all, he lived it.
And that’s why you should read this book.’

Frank Cottrell-Boyce, from the foreword to Ten years On The Parish.

Ten Years On The Parish, published here for the first time since it was written in the late 1930s, shines a light on the hardships and poverty endured by many in the years between the wars, including Garrett, who through his writing and his activism, became central to working class politics and culture in the 1920s and 30s in Liverpool and beyond.

Garrett also wrote a series of documentary reports about poverty and struggle in the 1920s and 30s, lived in New York in the mid-1920s, writing three plays influenced by the new theatre of Eugene O'Neill, and had a series of short stories published in the 1930s alongside literary greats WH Auden, Stephen Spender, Christopher Isherwood and George Orwell. In the late 1930s he was a founder member of Liverpool's Unity Theatre.

In Ten Years On The Parish Garrett touches upon his time in New York in the early 1920s, gives a graphic account of the unemployed struggles in Liverpool, including The First Hunger March in 1922, and reveals how he personally, as well as others in the working classes, struggled to survive in Liverpool through the great depression of the 1930s.

Published alongside Ten Years On The Parish are a series of letters exchanged from January 1935 to July 1940 between Garrett and New Writing Editor John Lehmann, which reveal a unique insight into the relationship between a working-class writer and his editor.
Both original texts have extensive introductions by the editors Mike Morris, tony Wailey and Andrew Davies, as well as a foreword by Frank Cottrell-Boyce, which establishes the context and importance of Garrett's work.

This publication gives long-overdue credence to Garrett's importance as a writer and radical, who has come to be regarded as ‘The most significant working-class writer of his generation.’

Click button below to order your copy of Ten Years On the Parish

The authors and the George Garrett Archive Project volunteers have spoken at conferences and events, and delivered adult education courses on Garrett’s life and work. The have also delivered courses for schools. If you are interested in booking a speaker from the George Garrett Archive Project, or having the group come to your school, email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Course Workshops

The George Garrett Archive Project launched a series of workshops in September 2013 that explored George Garrett’s writings – short stories and plays, his involvement in Liverpool’s radical social and upheavals and his life as a Merchant Seaman, with a particular focus on his time spent in America and his involvement with the International Workers of the World (The Wobblies). Course participants gained skills in archiving and conserving Garrett’s work, and have played an active role in researching his life and bringing his work back to Liverpool for display in the newly refurbished Central Library and Records Office.

Course documents can be accessed from the main menu or links to the right.
Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4